The wild sea beet is mainly distributed along the sea shores where plants are most prevalent on beaches in a narrow band between the high tide zone and the start of the denser coast vegetation. They also occur on cliffs and on disturbed inland sites. Sea beet is adapted to high sea salt concentrations. The interest for collecting wild sea beet genotypes from natural habitats started almost years ago. Scientists are now considering wild sea beet in particular, as being the closest wild relative to cultivated beets, as well as other wild Beta species, as genetic resources in which to find resistance to an increasing pressure from insects, nematodes and diseases, and as a source of genes for greater productivity Frese, L.
Many gene banks have significant numbers of Beta v. In Norway wild sea beet was found for the first time in , and has thereafter been found at several new locations in the south east part of the country.
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However, wild sea beet is not very winter hardy and has rapidly disappeared from many previous registered locations. During the summer , the author of this piece assisted on a small expedition carried out by botanists at the University of Oslo, searching for wild sea beets on shores in the south east of Norway. Out of ten possible habitats investigated, wild sea beet plants were found at five new locations.
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The summer after, however, the plants had disappeared from three of these new locations. NordGen is today conserving about accessions of Beta vulgaris , most of which are cultivars of fodder beets, sugar beets or red beets from the Nordic countries. The collection of sea beet is small and consists of 18 accessions from Denmark. When the Svalbard Global Seed Vault celebrated its ten years anniversary earlier this year, beets were, together with barley, chosen to represent Nordic agriculture in a ceremony at the beginning of the 10 year Seed Vault Summit in Longyearbyen.
It was anticipated that this variety was lost; however, a seed sample was repatriated to NordGen from USDA to the Nordic gene bank in Frese, L. Conservation and Access to Sugarbeet Germplasm. Sugar Tech. Springer Verlag DOI Enders, M. Nachtigall, E. Gillet and H-R. The volume will be completely devoted to the sea beet, that is, the ancestor of all the cultivated beets. The wild plant, growing mainly on the shore of the Mediterranean Sea, remains very important as source of useful traits for beet breeding.
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Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. This collection became the material for the subsequent disease-resistant research of USDA-ARS researchers at Salinas, CA, and their collaborators, and has yielded resistance genes for powdery mildew, rhizomania, cyst nematode, and root knot nematode Chap. Viacheslav Victor Fig.
Savitsky was responsible for finding the source of monogerm seed Fig. VF Savitsky is credited with the discovery of the monogerm seed trait in sugar beet that allowed precision sowing and culture of sugar beet development of hybrids using male sterility and breeding for curly top resistance Savitsky and Murphy Savitsky was an excellent microscopist and cytologist. She worked with male sterility Savitsky , but her interest in cytology led her to perform a number of studies on interspecific hybridization.
Although her principal focus was on the transfer of nematode resistance Figs. Savitsky also worked with B. The following summaries were written by the respective researchers who kindly responded to the request of the authors. Devon L. The latter allowed the elimination of singling. Single seeds could be obtained also from multigerm seeds by fracturing the seedball above right , but with reduced germination ability from Biancardi et al.
Denmark with Madson Denmark. Preservation: All samples collected were shared with the host country. A small sample of each of the original collection was forwarded to the National Seed bank at Fort Collins, Colorado, for permanent preservation. The remainder or working collection was deposited in the Regional Seed Storage facility at Ames, Iowa it was later transferred to the Regional Seed Storage facility at Pullman, Washington.
Here, a mid-generation progeny line CN, Lewellen with resistance to severe sugar beet cyst nematode attack in comparison to sister lines that are fully susceptible May , Brawley, CA Fig. Enhanced sugar beet roots 40 days after inoculation with Meloidogyne incognita Race 1.
Enhancement: Disease resistance has been found and used to enhancement resistance for the above diseases in commercial sugar beets. Efforts to introduce exotic germplasm into cultivated sugar beet expanded after the transfer of Doney from the sugar beet research unit at Logan, Utah, to Fargo in Doney These lines have since been backcrossed to a cultivated sugar beet L; Theurer to increase the sucrose concentration to a more useful level.
Doney continued to develop cultivated x wild Beta spp. Approximately 30 populations derived from cultivated sugar beet—B. Typically, these populations undergo five—seven cycles of mass selection to reduce the frequency of bolters and plants with multiple crowns and to obtain a single dominant taproot. This usually is followed by at least two cycles of mass selection for sucrose concentration, based upon analysis of individual roots.
During his tenure at Fargo, Doney led wild Beta collecting expeditions to Egypt and throughout Europe.
Collections made on these trips have increased the diversity within the USDA-Beta collection substantially. Under the guidance of this committee, Beta germplasm evaluation and collection oversight became and continues to be a model for other crops Doney This is the site where Munerati found the first populations of B.
The Porto Levante population was coded WB, from which resistance to rhizomania and root knot nematode was ultimately found point The populations from were sown into field plots, along with several CLS-tolerant 2n families, in a rhizomania-infected field near San Pietro in Casale, Bologna Fig. In , De Biaggi left the Rovigo Station to start a cercospora— rhizomania selection and breeding project for the private seed company 1.
Here, De Biaggi established variety trials in a severely rhizomania-infected field at San Martino, Bologna. Based upon the Rovigo findings, a set of multigerm diploid entries derived from old families released by Rovigo were tested. Fortunately, this test also was under severe rhizomania conditions and nearly all plots were severely damaged. It was possible to select about mother roots with putative resistance from only 5 multigerm entries. The most promising family was the strain coded Following overwintering, the selected beets from each family along with two CMS F1 lines were transplanted into five isolation plots located in the hills of Brisighella, Ravenna, producing ten experimental hybrids.
In , these hybrids were drilled into ITB trials under severe rhizomania conditions near Phitiviers, Loiret, France Biancardi et al. All hybrids showed good resistance to rhizomania, but the strain , recoded as ITBR1, showed a very high sugar yield as well. This high-performing hybrid was retested both in healthy and rhizomania-diseased trials from to at Loiret and Erstein, Bas Rhin, France. The high sugar yield and resistance to rhizomania were confirmed.
The female monogerm parent of Rizor had high yield performance as well, and it was obvious that resistance to rhizomania came from the pollinator De Biaggi The resistance from the pollinator expressed dominance Biancardi et al. This first important source of resistance to rhizomania then appears likely to trace back to the populations of Munerati that had B.
The fact that similar or identical resistance was found in B. Robert T. His research was on the genetics and improvement enhancement of sugar beet. Initially, he worked only within developed sugar beet breeding material. After , research and development of parental lines and commercial cultivars were reduced. With Whitney, the Wild Beet accessions numbered by McFarlane from WB29 to WB were screened for reaction to diseases, particularly rhizomania caused by BNYVV, virus yellows caused by Beet yellows virus, Beet western yellows virus, and Beet chlorosis virus, powdery mildew caused by Erysiphe polygoni, cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii , and other pests and traits Chap.
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The sea beet lines increased by McFarlane at Salinas were individually crossed to sugar beet in the greenhouse. Over five cycles of selection, R22 was improved for nonbolting, resistance to rhizomania, virus yellow, powdery mildew, root and crown conformation, and root and sugar yield. The improved population was released as C51 Lewellen Individual and specific sets of B.
From these, C48, C58, C to C, etc. Resistance genes Rz2 and Rz3 were found in these lines and populations Sect. R22 C51 was backcrossed into sugar beet and the populations reselected for favorable traits. From R22 and backcrosses to sugar beet, partial resistance to sugar beet cyst nematode SBCN was identified.
WB was thought to have contributed the resistance to SBCN, and specific progenies were selected and advanced with nematode resistance Sect. From WB97 and WB, gene s Pm conditioning high resistance to Erysiphe polygoni syn Erysiphe betae were identified and transferred to sugar beet Lewellen and Schrandt From the collections of Doney and others point 11 , accessions of B. Those that specifically showed resistance to rhizomania were selected and increased in bulk to form broadly based B.